Diverse Groups

Who will benefit from culturally responsive programs and services?

All members of a diverse society benefit from a greater understanding of varying cultures and learning to become more responsive to groups of people different from their own. While CBCAP funded-services are often targeted to the broad population, under-served and under-represented groups are a particular focus of limit resources. Please use the links below for more information on each group listed:

Parents

All parents, regardless of age, gender, race, ethnicity, or sexual orientation, need to have access to resources and information that support the positive and successful nurturing and care of their children.

For new parents, getting to know and understand their little one is paramount. The first days and weeks of a newborn's life are a time of great wonder and joy for most new parents. However, being responsible for such a seemingly fragile creature can be intimidating, mainly being unfamiliar with how a newborn looks and behaves. This can create anxiety and even fear in some new parents who must learn to bond with their child, understand their primitive reflexes, know their newborn's sleeping and breathing patterns, provide proper nutrition, and become familiar with their general health and development.1

Teen parents face additional challenges. Before the birth, teenaged parents may begin to feel isolated from their peers, and frustrated by the many restrictions, particularly for the expectant teen mother, that a pregnancy imposes.2 Risk factors for adolescent parents include: lack of life experience, lack of maturity, balancing their education with the need to parent and bond with their newborn, a higher potential for dropping out of school, lack of employment and other economic disadvantages, child care obstacles, and the need for additional emotional support.3

Many parents may have an interest in leadership roles within the organizations where they have received services. Parent leadership can include serving on an advisory council, acquiring training and co-facilitating parent support groups, providing input on program services and agency policies, or assisting or mentoring parents new to a program by offering them extra support. FRIENDS has a Parent Advisory Council (the PAC) whose members serve on workgroups for a variety of projects, develop and write a quarterly newsletter on parenting issues, and communicate the parent voice at conferences and through work in their home states.

Resources

FRIENDS NC Website - Making the Link- Parent Organizing

Information found on the FRIENDS NRC website from Making the Link, A Publication of Grantmakers for Children, Youth & Families -Rather than relying exclusively on focus groups or professional expertise to select issues and develop strategy, parent organizing groups use staff to support and build the capacity of parents to take on these tasks as leaders. Through training, these parents become leaders who can shape agendas, strategize, and be a voice for themselves and their children.


1. The Nemours Foundation. Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/parent/pregnancy_center/childbirth/newborn_variations.html 
2. American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved from http://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/teen/dating-sex/pages/Teen-Parents.aspx 
3. Office of Population Affairs. Retrieved from https://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/adolescent-development/reproductive-health-and-teen-pregnancy/teen-pregnancy-and-childbearing/index.html

Parents and/or children with disabilities

Non-institutionalized people with disabilities comprise about 12% of the U.S. population or about 38 million people. Disabilities can range from physical, emotional, or behavioral to impairments caused by chronic illness and social and learning challenges.

Parents with disabilities sometimes experience fluctuations in their disability or illness, which can create variations in support needs. Experiences such as unemployment, poor housing, domestic violence, and family conflict can have as significant an impact as the disability or illness. Parents may, for example, have pressing needs for information or resources, advice, and advocacy regarding housing, benefits, and debt or financial management. Parents with disabilities are often aware of the difficulties their children may experience because of their needs and circumstances and appreciate support services, which help to make up for some of these difficulties. Additionally, the role of the extended family and informal community networks is often even more valuable for this group of parents.1

Estimates indicate that about 10% of people under the age of 18 have a disability or chronic illness. The incidence of abuse and neglect among these children is twice as high as it is among other children.2

Children with mild impairments are at higher risk for maltreatment than those with more severe impairments or disabilities. There are nuances in the types of abuse children experience concerning their disability and its severity" Children with emotional or behavioral disorders are found to be at the highest risk for maltreatment. A recent literature review concluded that children with communication or sensory impairments and learning disabilities are also at increased risk for abuse.

Please see the resources below to explore this complex issue further.3

Resources

The University of Washington, National Resources for Parents of Children and Youth with Disabilities Website (https://www.washington.edu/doit/Brochures/Parents/naparent.html)

This organization and website serve to increase the successful participation of individuals with disabilities in academics and careers, especially in promising fields where they have been underrepresented, including science, engineering, mathematics, and technology. Parents of youth with disabilities have unique opportunities to promote their successful transition to postsecondary education, employment, and full adult participation in society. Families can assist in the transition process by providing adolescents direction in their exploration of interests, guidance in career and college planning, and encouragement as they pursue their dreams.

Parents with Disabilities Online (http://www.disabledparents.net/)
This website, Parents with Disabilities Online, was created by a parent with disabilities for other parents with a disability, a person with a disability who is planning to become a parent or a nondisabled partner of a disabled parent. The focus is on parents helping each other as the best source of knowledge on parenting and support to other parents with disabilities. Their primary goal is to allow parents to share ideas and learn from each other. Most of the information on this site comes from parents with disabilities who are living their lives and successfully raising their children.


1. Morris, J. & Wates, M. (2006, November). Adults' services Knowledge review 11: Supporting disabled parents and parents with additional support needs. Social Care Institute for Excellence. Retrieved from http://sid.usal.es/idocs/F8/FDO20488/supporting_disabled.pdf 
2. American Humane Association. Retrieved from, http://www.americanhumane.org/children/stop-child-abuse/fact-sheets/child-abuse-and-neglect-statistics.html 
3. Administration for Children and Families, Children's Bureau. Retrieved from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/prevenres/focus/focus.pdf 

Racial and ethnic groups and communities

Race and ethnicity are difficult to define. The U.S. Census Bureau uses self-identification for calculating race and ethnicity with terms established by the Office of Management and Budget. Census respondents select the race or races with which they identify and indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin (the only categories offered for ethnicity). Experts provide definitions that use a more complex combination of biological, historical, and genetic references as well as social and cultural characteristics and attitudes. Many people associate race with biology and physical characteristics and ethnicity with culture.

Members of diverse racial and ethnic groups in the United States have typically suffered from disparate rates of poverty, unemployment, poor health outcomes, teenage pregnancies, and other conditions that can lead to a poor quality of life and even early death. Many of these groups have suffered from racial and ethnic prejudice and historical trauma, which are compatible with the disparate rates of social, economic, and health problems suffered by members of these groups. SAMHSA's GAINS Center for Behavioral Health and Justice Transformation describes historical trauma as cumulative and collective with the impact manifesting itself emotionally and psychologically. Those who have never experienced the traumatic stressor, such as children and descendants, can still exhibit signs and symptoms of trauma.

Resources

U.S. Office of Minority Health (OMH) (http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/templates/browse.aspx?lvl=1&lvlID=7#sthash.Qil2DHsL.dpuf)
U.S. Office of Minority Health (OMH) programs address poor health outcomes for African Americans, Hispanic Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders. These populations experience higher rates of illness and death from health conditions such as heart disease, stroke, specific cancers, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, asthma, hepatitis B, and overweight and obesity. OMH's primary responsibility is to improve health and healthcare outcomes for racial and ethnic minority communities by developing or advancing policies, programs, and practices that address health, social, economic, environmental, and other factors that impact health.

Administration for Children and Families: Child Welfare Information Gateway, Working With African-American Children and Families
(https://www.childwelfare.gov/topics/systemwide/diverse-populations/africanamerican/)
Provides resources to help child welfare workers more fully engage with African-American families and make culturally competent case decisions, including State and local examples.

Administration for Children and Families: Child Welfare Information Gateway, Working with Asian American Families (https://www.childwelfare.gov/topics/systemwide/diverse-populations/asian/)
Highlights resources and issues relevant to working with Asian American families, including State and local examples.

U.S. Administration for Children and Families - Hispanic Outreach Initiative (http://www.acf.hhs.gov/hispanic-outreach-initiative)
U.S. Administration for Children and Families has undertaken several research projects focusing on Hispanic populations, including children who are dual language learners or children of migrant and seasonal workers, economic mobility among low-income Hispanic families, and identifying and minimizing the impact of restrictive immigration laws on public benefit programs and social services.

American Psychological Association: Ethnic and Racial Minorities & Socioeconomic Status Overview and Summary
(http://www.apa.org/pi/ses/resources/publications/factsheet-erm.aspx)

Administration for Children and Families: Tribal and Native American Resources and the Administration for Native Americans Websites (http://www.acf.hhs.gov/initiatives-priorities/tribal & http://www.acf.hhs.gov/ana)
Links will provide information about ACF's Tribal Initiative, upcoming events or training, federal funding opportunities, and resources of interest to Tribal and Native communities.

Fatherhood

Having a father who is present in a child's life supports healthy development. Children who grow up with their fathers or who experience social and emotional support from positive male role models tend to do better in several areas, including:

  • better cognitive outcomes, even as infants
  • higher self-esteem and less depression as teenagers
  • higher grades, test scores, and overall academic achievement
  • lower levels of drug and alcohol use
  • higher levels of empathy and other pro-social behavior

Research shows that the cooperative input and influence of a male parent and a female parent is ideal and, in many ways essential for proper child development. Pruett, an expert on fathering and author of Fatherneed: Why Father Care is as Essential as Mother Care for Your Child, states, "fathers do not mother, they father." 1 They play distinctly different roles, both equally important. Psychology Today explains, "fatherhood turns out to be a complex and unique phenomenon with huge consequences for the emotional and intellectual growth of children." 2 A father, as a male parent, brings unique contributions to the job of parenting a child.3

One of the most important social trends of our time is the dramatic increase over the past four decades in the number of children living in father-absent families. In 1960, less than 10 million children were living in homes absent their fathers. Today, that number stands at over 24 million. This means that tonight, nearly 4 out of every ten children in America will go to sleep in a home in which their biological father does not live; by some estimates, this figure could rise to as high as 60% of children born in the 1990s. For the first time in our history, the average child can expect to live a significant portion of his or her life in a home without their father present.4

Although many fathers are not living in the same household as their children, they can still remain actively involved with their child's school activities, interests, friends, feelings, and overall well-being. For children who have lost their dad due to death or other circumstances, other adult male figures, such as uncles and grandfathers, and other men who live in a community can play a critically important role in the lives of these boys and girls.

Many national, state, and local programs work to reconnect absent fathers with their children. In contrast, other programs help to find positive adult males to play an active part in the lives of children in their communities. The National Fatherhood Initiative (NFI), for example, offers evidence-based and evidence-informed programs that serve incarcerated fathers, and dads in the military, addressing some of the unique challenges in each of these circumstances.

The National Responsible Fatherhood Clearinghouse (NRFC) under the US Department of Health and Human Services provides links to programs offered in states, links to mentoring programs for men who wish to volunteer, and a library and multimedia resources for anyone wanting to learn more about being a responsible male figure in a child's life. A series of public service announcements sponsored by the NRFC, such as the one linked here have been run throughout the country in recent years. https://www.fatherhood.gov/multimedia/video. They serve as a reminder that fathers and other male figures can play an impactful role in the lives of children in all sorts of ways.

* Thank you to Erik Vecere, Vice President of Program Support, National Fatherhood Initiative for contributing to this posting.

Resources

National Responsible Fatherhood Clearinghouse (www.fatherhood.gov)

The Clearinghouse is an Office of Family Assistance (OFA) funded national resource under the USDHHS for fathers, practitioners, programs/Federal grantees, states, and the public-at-large who are serving or interested in supporting strong fathers and families. The Clearinghouse goals include disseminating current research and proven strategies with dads, researchers, policymakers, and other stakeholders. The website includes tips for dads, fatherhood programs, and a library with resources on responsible fatherhood.

National Fatherhood Initiative(www.fatherhood.org)

The National Fatherhood Initiative (NFI) is a nonprofit organization founded in 1994 to "reverse our nation's destructive trend toward father absence." NFI's mission includes educating all Americans, especially fathers, through public awareness campaigns, research, and other resources. The website provides information on the 24/7 Dad program, community-based fatherhood initiatives, and special sections on incarcerated dads and military families.


1. Pruett, Kyle, M.D., Fatherneed: Why Father Care is as Essential as Mother Care for your Child (Crown Publishing/Harmony Books, 2001). 

2. Roberts, Paul, and Moseley, Bill, Psychology Today, Father's Time: Understanding the challenges of fatherhood. Published on May 1, 1996, and last reviewed on June 8, 2012. Retrieved 2.16.15. https://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200910/fathers-time 

3. Appreciating How fathers Give Children a Head Start, National Center on Parent, Family, and Community Engagement, Office of Head Start, Administration for Children and Families, USDHHS. https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/family-engagement/article/appreciating-how-fathers-give-children-head-start 

4. Brown, Christopher, President, National Fatherhood Initiative (NFI) as written in The Proof Is In: Father Absence Harms Child Well-being, The Blog of the Huffington Post, 3.14.14. Retrieved 2.15.15, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/christopher-a-brown/the-proof-is-infather-abs_b_4941353.html 

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth, Adults, and Families

In 2012 increasing numbers of population-based surveys across the world began to include questions designed to measure sexual orientation and gender identity, which then allowed for an estimate of the size of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population. One factor that creates variation among estimates of the LGBT community is the survey methods, which can affect the willingness of respondents to report stigmatizing identities and behaviors.

Federal data sources designed to provide population estimates in the United States (e.g., the Decennial Census or the American Community Survey) have not included direct questions regarding sexual orientation or gender identity. Two studies released by the Williams Institute at UCLA School of Law, review findings from four recent large, national, population-based surveys to derive estimates of the size of the LGBT community and same-sex married and unmarried couple families.

Key findings from the LGBT Demographics study include:

  • Estimates of the percent of adults who identified as LGB or LGBT varied across surveys from between 2.2% and 4.0%, implying that between 5.2 million and 9.5 million individuals aged 18 and older are LGBT.
  • Surveys found many demographic similarities among respondents who choose to identify as LGB or LGBT. LGBT identity was more common among younger populations. LGBT populations generally shared the racial and ethnic characteristics of non-LGBT individuals.

Key findings from the study of LGB Families and Relationships include:

  • In 2013, there were an estimated 690,000 same-sex couples in the U.S., of whom, approximately 124,000 were married. Analyses restricted to the second half of that year, after the Supreme Court’s ruling in Windsor that brought federal recognition to married same-sex couples, suggest that the figure may be as many as 130,000 married same-sex couples.
  • In the last three years (since 2011), the number of married same-sex couples in the U.S. has increased by an estimated 50%.
  • Same-sex couples were raising an estimated 200,000 children under age 18, of whom 30,000 are being raised by married same-sex parents. LGBT individuals who are not part of a couple are raising between 1.2 and 2 million children (depending on which estimate is used regarding the proportion of adults who are LGB or LGBT)

A ground-breaking study finds that approximately 1 in 5 (or 1,400) foster youth in Los Angeles County identify as LGBTQ. The study, “Sexual and Gender Minority Youth in Los Angeles County Foster Care: Assessing Disproportionality and Disparity,” was funded as part of the federal Permanency Innovations Initiative. It is the first population-based survey aimed at measuring sexual orientation and gender identity of youth in the foster care system. This study finds that LGBTQ foster youth are twice as likely to report poor treatment and more likely to live in group homes as well as have more foster care placements. It also finds the percentage of LGBTQ youth who were hospitalized for emotional reasons was nearly triple of similar hospitalizations for non-LGBTQ youth.

Understanding the size of the LGBT population is critical in informing a host of public policy and research topics including assessing health and economic disparities in the LGBT community, understanding the prevalence of anti-LGBT discrimination, and considering the economic impact of marriage equality or the provision of domestic partnership benefits to same-sex couples.

In the United States, same-sex marriages are recognized by the U.S. federal government and are currently legal in 36 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and 21 Native American tribal jurisdictions. However, on January 16, 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to hear four cases, on appeal from the Sixth Circuit, on whether states may constitutionally ban same-sex marriages or refuse to recognize such marriages legally performed in another state. The law and public policy will continue to evolve for the foreseeable future.

Finck, Clay, Senior Associate at JBS International, Inc. The webpage was written for the FRIENDS National Center website, Cultural Responsiveness Section, in January 2015.

Resources:

The Family Acceptance Project (http://familyproject.sfsu.edu/)
The Family Acceptance Project™ is a research, intervention, education and policy initiative that works to prevent health and mental health risks for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) children and youth, including suicide, homelessness, and HIV – in the context of their families. The organization uses a research-based, culturally grounded approach to help ethnically, socially, and religiously diverse families to support their LGBT children. The Project, based at the Marian Wright Edelman Institute at San Francisco State University, has been putting research into practice by developing an evidence-based family model of wellness, prevention, and care to strengthen families and promote positive development and healthy futures for LGBT children and youth. We provide training and consultation on our family-based prevention and intervention approach across the U.S. and in other countries.

Advocates for Youth-GLBTQ Issues (http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/topics-issues/glbtq?task=view)
This page within the Advocates for Youth website provides basic information on LGBTQ youth and transgender youth as well as links to resources for professionals and parents. There are also links to information on LGBTQ policies and advocacy as well as publications on related issues. Established in 1980 as the Center for Population Options, Advocates for Youth champions efforts that help young people make informed and responsible decisions about their reproductive and sexual health. Advocates believe it can best serve the field by boldly advocating for a more positive and realistic approach to adolescent sexual health. Advocates focus its work on young people ages 14-25 in the U.S. and around the globe. The organization’s core values are rights, respect, and responsibility.

References:
http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/press/press-releases/29-sept-2014/#sthash.ULao9pXX.dpuf
http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/research/census-lgbt-demographics-studies/lgb-families-nhis-sep-2014/
http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/LAFYS_report_final-aug-2014.pdf

Families who are homeless and those at risk of homelessness

Despite some gains in the last decade in reducing overall U.S. homelessness, family homelessness remains a big problem. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s 2016 Point-In-Time homelessness count identified almost 200,000 families with children experiencing homelessness – a full 35% of the homeless population. Of the people in families with children, 60% were under age 18. At the same time, the Department of Education’s annual data summary of students showed approximately 1.2 million students were identified as experiencing some form of homelessness during the 2014-2015 school year.”1

Families experiencing homelessness share many of the same characteristics of very low-income, housed families living in poverty. When families encounter an unforeseen housing or financial crisis—a loss of employment, a death in the family, a medical emergency, violence or abuse in the family, etc. —they can fall into a situation where they cannot maintain their housing and end up experiencing homelessness.

Families experiencing homelessness and housing instability face significant challenges and trauma, including increased exposure to and risk of family and community violence. They move frequently and often double up in overcrowded (and sometimes unsafe) housing with relatives or friends. Others sleep in cars and campgrounds or send their children to stay with relatives or family acquaintances to avoid entering a homeless shelter or becoming involved with public systems like child welfare.

When families experience homelessness, children face a significantly higher risk of chronic or unaddressed health and developmental issues than their peers. Homelessness can also increase the risk of family separation or delay reunification, especially for children in foster care.

To learn more about homelessness and to find resources in your state or community, visit the resources below.

Resources

Child Welfare Information Gateway (https://www.childwelfare.gov/topics/systemwide/service-array/housing/)
Child Welfare Information Gateway’s searchable website is a valuable source of information and resources about housing needs and services for low-income families, including those involved with the child welfare system. Resources, including state and local examples, are grouped by the topics “housing & child welfare” and “housing for relative/kinship caregivers.”

U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH) (https://www.usich.gov/goals/families)
USICH coordinates the federal response to homelessness by partnering with 19 Federal agencies, state and local governments, advocates, service providers, and people experiencing homelessness. The USICH’s Opening Doors is the first multi-partner federal strategic plan to prevent and end homelessness. Its Ending Family Homelessness webpage provides an overview of the issue, progress to-date, and links to tools and resources.

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Homeless Assistance (HUD) (http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_offices/comm_planning/homeless)
The HUD Homeless Assistance web portal lists and provides brief descriptions of a broad range of homeless resources and programs.

Administration for Children and Families (ACF), Office of Early Childhood Development (ECD) (https://www.acf.hhs.gov/ecd/interagency-projects/ece-services-for-homeless-children)
Preventing family and youth homelessness is a key priority of ACF’s Office of Regional Operations, which partners with states and local programs to help vulnerable and low-income youth and families to avoid homelessness, access affordable housing, and provide needed supports.

Administration for Children and Families, Office of Regional Operations(https://www.acf.hhs.gov/oro/priorities/family-youth-homelessness)
Preventing family and youth homelessness is a key priority of ACF’s Office of Regional Operations, which partners with states and local programs to help vulnerable and low-income youth and families to avoid homelessness, access affordable housing, and provide needed supports.

American Institutes for Research (AIR), National Center on Family Homelessness (https://www.air.org/center/national-center-family-homelessness)
The AIR National Center on Family Homelessness webpage provides an overview of the issue, including data snapshots. There is also a link for anyone that is “In Need of Assistance” with a list of links to resources.

National Alliance to End Homelessness (http://www.endhomelessness.org/pages/families_overview)
The websites of these national networks include research and data, as well as resources for activists.


1 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development AHAR Part 1. Retrieved from https://www.hudexchange.info/resources/documents/2016-AHAR-Part-1.pdf 

Unaccompanied youth who are homeless

The nation’s first comprehensive federal strategy to prevent and end homelessness defines “unaccompanied youth” as minors under 18 and young adults between the ages of 18 and 24, including parenting youth, who are unaccompanied by a parent, legal guardian, or caretaker.1 According to the National Coalition for the Homeless, half a million unaccompanied youth will experience homelessness in any given year.2

Family problems, economic circumstances, racial disparities, and mental health, and substance use disorders are the often interrelated factors that contribute to youth homelessness. Of these, family problems are the principal reason that young people leave home. In some cases, youth leave after years of physical and sexual abuse, strained relationships, addiction of a family member, and parental neglect. Some groups of youth are particularly vulnerable and over-represented among the population of youth who experience homelessness. This includes:

  • youth who self-identify as lesbian, gay, bi-sexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ)
  • pregnant and parenting youth
  • youth with disabilities
  • Native American youth
  • victims of trafficking and exploitation, and
  • youth involved with juvenile justice and child welfare systems.

There is a strong link between youth homelessness and trafficking. The largest-ever combined sample of homeless youth in the United States and Canada revealed that nearly one-fifth are victims of human trafficking, including those trafficked for sex, labor, or both, with LGBTQ youth and young women disproportionately affected.3

Some youth experience homelessness when they exit foster or institutional care. In one study, almost one in five youth who were in foster care at 17 years old reported two years later that they had been homeless at some point during those two years.4

Another major contributor to youth homelessness, family economic problems or financial crises, is a general lack of resources, such as a shortage of affordable housing, limited employment opportunities, insufficient wages, and no medical insurance or inadequate welfare benefits.

Please visit the resources below to learn more about efforts to end youth homelessness and find resources in your state or community.

Resources

Child Welfare Information Gateway (https://www.childwelfare.gov/)
Child Welfare Information Gateway’s searchable website contains numerous resources related to youth homelessness, including those specific to sex trafficking of children and youth, and to supportive housing programs, including those serving pregnant/parenting teens and young people transitioning from foster care.

U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH) (https://www.usich.gov/goals/youth)
Helping the Needy provides a list of homeless shelters by state and city, social service organizations, including soup kitchens and rent assistance programs, and news updates on the latest issues.

Department of Housing and Urban Development - Homelessness Assistance (https://www.hudexchange.info/homelessness-assistance/resources-for-homeless-youth/resources-for-homeless-youth-service-providers/#planning-your-coordinated-community-approach)
Resources for youth service providers and their partners are highlighted on the HUD website. HUD, along with many other federal agencies, manages and funds programs such as local homeless assistance agencies, emergency shelters, food assistance programs, housing counseling, and job training and placement assistance.

Administration for Children and Families, Children’s Bureau (CB) (https://www.acf.hhs.gov/cb)
CB offers anti-trafficking programs focused on children and youth who are at risk of abuse or neglect and those who are involved with the child welfare system. Its Capacity Building Center for States supports states and territories in planning and implementing the Preventing Sex Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act.

Administration for Children and Families, Family Youth Services Bureau (FYSB) (https://www.acf.hhs.gov/fysb/programs/runaway-homeless-youth/about)
FYSB’s Runaway and Homeless Youth Program supports emergency shelters and longer-term transitional living and maternity group home programs. Its Street Outreach Program provides outreach to run away and homeless youth on the streets or in areas that increase the risk of sexual exploitation.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Homelessness Programs and Resources (https://www.samhsa.gov/homelessness-programs-resources)
this page features SAMHSA’s programs and resources which help prevent and end homelessness among people with mental or substance use disorders.

National Coalition for the Homeless - Youth Projects (http://nationalhomeless.org/taking-action/youth-action/)
The National Coalition for the Homeless website offers a list of activities and events to help highlight the issue and provide opportunities to take action.

A Way Home America (http://awayhomeamerica.org/)
A Way Home America is a national initiative to build the movement to prevent and end homelessness among young people that partner closely with youth, advocates, researchers, philanthropy, and service providers as well as federal agencies.

Homeless Shelter Directory (http://www.homelessshelterdirectory.org/)
Helping the Needy provides a list of homeless shelters by state and city, social service organizations, including soup kitchens and rent assistance programs, and news updates on the latest issues.


1.United States Interagency Council on Homelessness. Retrieved from https://www.usich.gov/resources/uploads/asset_library/Federal-Definitions-of-Youth-Homelessness.pdf

2.National Coalition for the Homeless, Youth Homelessness. Retrieved from http://nationalhomeless.org/about-homelessness/

3.Labor and Sex Trafficking Among Homeless Youth. Retrieved from The Modern Slavery Research Project https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5887a2a61b631bfbbc1ad83a/t/5a7490fdc8302508d6b76f1c/1517588734590/Labor+and+Sex+Trafficking+Among+Homeless+Youth.pdf

4.Administration for Children and Families (2014). National Youth in Transition Database Data Brief # 4. Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/resource/nytd-data-brief-4

Adult former victims of child abuse and neglect or domestic violence

The long-term impact of experiencing child abuse and neglect varies considerably among adults. For some adult former victims of child abuse, neglect, or domestic violence, the effects can be chronic and debilitating, other adults have less adverse outcomes, despite their histories. Critical factors that may influence the way child abuse and neglect affects adults include the frequency and duration of maltreatment and if more than one type of maltreatment occurred during their childhood.1

The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACES) collaborative research study demonstrates the long term impact of childhood experiences such as abuse, neglect, or witnessing domestic violence, crime, parental conflict, mental illness, and substance abuse in the home. These ACEs are strongly related to challenges in development and a wide range of health problems across the lifespan. The higher the number of ACEs experienced, the more significant the impact over time. Having a comprehensive strategy to provide services to parents who are adult former victims of domestic violence, child abuse, and neglect can help prevent future child abuse and neglect in a family.

Resources

FRIENDS NC Website - ACES in Prevention (click here)

The ACEs Study (https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/childabuseandneglect/acestudy/about.html)

National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64896/ and http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64895/)
National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine: Substance Abuse Treatment for Persons with Child Abuse and Neglect Issues, Comprehensive Treatment for Adult Survivors of Child Abuse and Neglect, and Screening and Assessing Adults For Childhood Abuse and Neglect.


1. Australian Institute of Family Studies: Effects of child abuse and neglect for adult survivors (2014). Retrieved from http://www.aifs.gov.au/cfca/pubs/factsheets/a146123/index.html 

Working with Tribes

There are 567 federally-recognized American Indian Alaska Native (AI/AN) Nations, Tribes, Villages, and Communities in the United States. Approximately 229 of these diverse nations are in Alaska, with the rest located in 33 of the lower 48 states. Tribal sovereignty has been maintained since the first encounters between the Indigenous tribes and nations of North America and Europe. The U.S. Constitution, congressional acts, and case law re-affirm the unique relationship between tribes and the federal government, known as the federal trust responsibility. Additionally, there are 62 state-recognized tribes, which are eligible for federal funding, but not to the extent of federally-recognized tribes.1 Each tribe has its own self-government, laws and ordinances, culture, language, and traditions that ensure the Indian Nations remain viable, diverse groups of people. Some tribal nations consist of multiple, culturally distinct tribal cultures, but operate under one tribal government. Tribal communities are an essential part of our society with their unique political status, cultures, economic opportunities, and connections to the land. Understanding and effectively engaging with tribal communities can be an enriching, rewarding experience for everyone.

Collaborating with Tribes and Tribal Communities

The child abuse prevention community has an opportunity to collaborate with tribes and tribal communities. Inherent to the collaboration, it is vital first to understand and acknowledge the federal trust relationship, as well as the government to government relationships with states. Acknowledging these unique aspects of tribal sovereignty can impact how you establish and build a relationship with a tribe or tribal community. Just like other relationships that need to be nurtured, relationships with tribal communities require work and openness to understand each other's differences. Having a better understanding of tribal leadership practices and structures is important in building a strong relationship. At times, due to the unique process of tribal governments, relationship building may be a gradual process, but committing to it can serve to improve communication and the ability of CBCAP state lead agencies to work more cooperatively with tribal nations. Knowledge of the political status, tribal structures, and leadership practices specifically helps to strengthen partnerships. For more information on collaborating and working with Tribes and Tribal Governments, FRIENDS created the following resources:

The CBCAP State Lead in Colorado funded The Denver Indian Family Resource Center to integrate the Strengthening Families Protective Factor Framework into community programs and systems serving Colorado's American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. The "Keeping Your Family Strong and the Circle Whole" tip sheet is designed to inform, educate, and engage service providers and families in conversations about what the Strengthening Families Protective Factors look like in urban American Indian/Alaska Native families.

Working with American Indian and Alaska Native Families

More than half - sixty-one percent - of American Indians do not live on a reservation, so it is important to not only think about Native Americans that live on reservations. It is equally important to think about those that live off the reservation. Many programs may already be working with AI/AN families in their program services. Many of these families still reach out to their tribes for support and services and are eligible for services targeting citizens of federally-recognized tribes. To effectively engage with this population, it's important to remember and understand the adverse and long-term impact of historical, intergenerational trauma, primarily because of historical injustices such as the forced removal of tribes from their ancestral homelands, removal of children from their families and tribes, and forbidding traditional spiritual and cultural ways. This form of trauma is known to have manifested in not only individuals but family systems and at the community level. Some effects include:

  • higher rates of mental and physical illness,
  • disparities in mortality rates,
  • disparities in rates of alcohol and substance abuse,
  • overrepresentation in the child welfare system, and
  • high rates of community violence and domestic violence.
Dr. Maria Yellow Horse Braveheart, PhD defined historical trauma as,

“The cumulative emotional and psychological wounding over the lifespan and across generations, emanating from massive group trauma.”

Despite the challenges of historical-intergenerational trauma, not all of the responses to cumulative traumatic events have been negative. There are many cultural strengths, embedded resilience, and protective factors that have been maintained by tribes and tribal citizens to maintain tribal sovereignty and their unique place in our society. Each tribal community, tribe, and nation's experience with historical-intergenerational trauma is similar, but there are differences, as there are aspects of cultural strengths, resilience, and protective factors that are unique to each tribe.

To learn more about historical trauma, visit these resources:

Healing the Soul Wound: Counseling with American Indians and Other Native Peoples
This book is written from the perspective of a psychologist working in Indian country who uses his own clinical experience to guide counselors working with Native Peoples. Translating theory into actual day-to-day practice, Duran presents case materials that illustrate effective intervention strategies for prevalent problems, including substance abuse, intergenerational trauma, and internalized oppression. (2006)

Duran, E. (2006). Healing the soul wound: Counseling with American Indians and other Native Peoples. New York: Teachers College Press.

Historical Trauma Among Indigenous Peoples of the Americas: Concepts, Research, and Clinical Considerations - Brave Heart, et al. (Dec. 2011). Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 43(4), p 282–290. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22400458

Historical Trauma and Microaggressions: A Framework for Culturally-Based Practice - University of Minnesota: Children's Mental Health eReview. (Oct. 2010) http://www.extension.umn.edu/family/cyfc/our-programs/historical-trauma-and-cultural-healing/

Additional Resources

The Capacity Building Center for Tribes collaborates with American Indian and Alaska Native nations to help strengthen tribal child and family systems and services to nurture the safety, permanency, and well-being of children, youth, and families. Visit https://capacity.childwelfare.gov/tribes/ or visit their information and resource sharing service that focuses exclusively on tribal child welfare https://www.tribalinformationexchange.org/.

Administration for Children and Families: Tribal and Native American Resources and the Administration for Native Americans Websites (http://www.acf.hhs.gov/initiatives-priorities/tribal & http://www.acf.hhs.gov/ana) provide information about ACF's tribal Initiative, upcoming events or training, federal funding opportunities, and resources of interest to tribal and Native communities.

The National Congress of American Indians (http://www.ncai.org/), founded in 1944, is the oldest, largest, and most representative American Indian and Alaska Native organization serving the broad interests of tribal governments and communities.

The National Indian Child Welfare Association (http://www.nicwa.org/) is a national, nonprofit organization that focuses on American Indian child welfare and tribal capacity to prevent child abuse and neglect.

The Child Welfare Information Gateway Tribal-State Relations (https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/cwig_podcasts/cwig_podcast_building_relationships_with_state_counterparts.pdf) provides the history of child welfare concerning American Indian and Alaska Native children and families and looks at ways that states, tribes, and related jurisdictions can work together more effectively.

The National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges (https://www.ncjfcj.org) is one of the largest and oldest judicial membership organizations in the nation that has sought to address the myriad of issues in juvenile and family justice courts. The organization provides an Indian Child Welfare Act Benchbook to assist judges and system stakeholders in implementing ICWA.  (https://www.ncjfcj.org/publications/indian-child-welfare-act-judicial-benchbook/)

Native American College Fund (http://www.collegefund.org/) The American Indian College Fund's motto is educating the mind and spirit. We achieve this by providing Native students with scholarships and providing financial support for the nation's 34 accredited tribal colleges and universities, which incorporate American Indian culture and language into their curriculum to honor our students' heritage and Native identity.

U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (http://www.bia.gov/) Established in 1824, IA currently provides services (directly or through contracts, grants, or compacts) to approximately 1.9 million American Indians and Alaska Natives. There are 566 federally recognized American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives in the United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is responsible for the administration and management of 55 million surface acres and 57 million acres of subsurface minerals estates held in trust by the United States for American Indian, Indian tribes, and Alaska Natives. Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) provides education services to approximately 42,000 Indian students.

U.S. Indian Health Services (http://www.ihs.gov/) The IHS is the principal federal health care provider and health advocate for Indian people, and its goal is to raise their health status to the highest possible level. The IHS provides a comprehensive health service delivery system for approximately 1.9 million American Indians and Alaska Natives who belong to 567 federally recognized tribes.


1. National Congress of American Indians website, retrieved 2/2017. http://www.ncai.org/about-tribes

Everyone in a setting benefits from a culturally diverse community of people, in which respect and cultural humility is practiced. This diversity allows for learning new ideas and new practices and enables individuals to better operate in a diverse world. People who live in isolation, or who are surrounded only by homogeneous people will miss the opportunities that learning from other cultures can bring to children, families, and communities.

Avoiding the Single Story

When people grow up in homogeneous communities, they may only have a single image of other people. Author, teacher, and international speaker Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie describes this as labeling people with a single story. This involves knowing very little about a person’s culture but thinking that one understands the other person and their experiences completely. No one has a “single story” and can be so easily understood. It is important to practice enough cultural humility to seek to learn more than a single thing or only a few things about another group of people.

You will better understand this single story concept by watching Ms. Adichie’s Ted Talk at the link below:
http://www.ted.com/talks/chimamanda_adichie_the_danger_of_a_single_story.html

This talk incorporates examples from America, Nigeria, and Mexico to describe the problem in using a single story to work with other people.

EXTERNAL RESOURCES:

The following resources are categorized by special population and include both longstanding national non-profit organizations and federal government offices that offer information which may be of interest to the CBCAP community.

Latino and Hispanic Resources
(**Provide direct services in communities.)

http://www.aspira.org/ - **ASPIRA works at the grass-roots level to provide programs that encourage Hispanic students to stay in school, prepare them to succeed in the educational arena, develop their leadership skills, and to serve their community. It is organized in eight states and Puerto Rico and has extensive national presence through its partnerships with hundreds of regional, state and local education Community Based Organizations.

http://www.catholiccharitiesusa.org/ -**The mission of Catholic Charities agencies is to provide service to people in need, to advocate for justice in social structures, and to call the entire church and other people of good will to do the same. If you search online “Catholic Charities Latino Service” a range of state and regional affiliate organizations will be listed that have large Latino and Hispanic service populations.

http://lulac.org/- The Mission of the League of United Latin American Citizens is to advance the economic condition, educational attainment, political influence, housing, health and civil rights of the Hispanic population of the United States.

http://www.lutheranservices.org/ - **A national faith based organization that provides health and social services (i.e., housing and substance abuse prevention/treatment) in hard to serve communities. They provide services to refugee, immigrant, and migrant families, many of whom are Latinos.

http://www.naprhsw.org/ - National Association of Puerto Rican and Hispanic Social Workers (APRHSW) was created to organize Social Workers and other Human Service professionals to strengthen, develop and improve the resources and services that meet the needs of Puerto Rican/Hispanic families.

http://www.chci.org/ - The Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute (CHCI) is a nonpartisan leadership development organization rooted in the same three mission cornerstones laid by its founders: Educate, Empower, and Connect. CHCI promotes education attainment and college access, providing unmatched career development experience, and offering award-winning leadership programs that connect program participants to a network of U.S. leaders.

African Americans and Other Ethnicities

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SaSHLbS1V4w - A Video: Understanding Cultural Humility: People, Principles and Practices (2012) A 30-minute documentary by San Francisco State professor Vivian Chávez that mixes poetry with music, interviews, archival footage, and images of community, nature and dance to explain what Cultural Humility is and why we need it.

http://www.pbs.org/journeytopeace/credits/index.html - A program developed by Jamila White, Douglas Spiro, and Cole McGee that includes a documentary film. The website includes clips of videos from conversations with Dr. John Hope Franklin and Archbishop Desmond Tutu and 21 students. The students are from the United States, South Africa and the Republic of Senegal. Clips of student conversations revolve around interracial relationships, international stereotypes, intergenerational issues and using art to build bridges. The documentary was shown on PBS in 2001 and is available for order, but the website offers a number of rich resources which are readily available.

American Indian and Alaska Native Resources

http://www.collegefund.org/ - Native American College Fund: The American Indian College Fund's motto is educating the mind and spirit. We achieve this by providing Native students with scholarships and providing financial support for the nation's 34 accredited tribal colleges and universities, which incorporate American Indian culture and language into their curriculum to honor our students' heritage and Native identity.

http://www.bia.gov/ - U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs: Established in 1824, IA currently provides services (directly or through contracts, grants, or compacts) to approximately 1.9 million American Indians and Alaska Natives. There are 566 federally recognized American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives in the United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is responsible for the administration and management of 55 million surface acres and 57 million acres of subsurface minerals estates held in trust by the United States for American Indian, Indian tribes, and Alaska Natives. Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) provides education services to approximately 42,000 Indian students.

http://www.ihs.gov/ - U.S. Indian Health Services: The IHS is the principal federal health care provider and health advocate for Indian people and its goal is to raise their health status to the highest possible level. The IHS provides a comprehensive health service delivery system for approximately 1.9 million American Indians and Alaska Natives who belong to 566 federally recognized tribes.

http://www.acf.hhs.gov/initiatives-priorities/tribal - U.S. Administration for Children and Families’ Tribal and Native American Resources: ACF is committed to working with Tribal Governments in building a strong partnership regarding our programs and the services they provide. ACF provides the largest amount of funding to Native Americans located throughout the nation and the territories of Guam, American Samoa and the Northern Marianna Islands outside of the funds provided by the Indian Health Service. Out of a budget of almost $50 Billion, ACF awards on the average $647 Million to Native Americans from the following programs Head Start, Child Care, TANF, LIHEAP, Child Support and the Administration for Native Americans to name a few.

http://www.justice.gov/otj/ - Office of Tribal Justice, Department of Justice: The website addresses policies and initiatives for parties interested in Indian affairs ranging from federal criminal law, to methamphetamine use, civil rights, gaming, and related information sharing.

http://www.bie.edu/index.htm - Bureau of Indian Education

http://www.ncai.org/ - National Congress of American Indians: Founded in 1944, it is the oldest, largest, and most representative American Indian and Alaskan Native organization serving the broad interests of tribal governments and communities. Updates posted regularly share new initiatives, issues in the media, and opportunities for native youth.

Refugees

http://www.refugees.org/ - The U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (USCRI) has been serving uprooted people, regardless of their nationality, race, ideology, or social group. They provide tools and opportunities for self-sufficiency to refugees and immigrants nationwide, fight refugee warehousing around the world, serve victims of human trafficking, and protect the rights of unaccompanied immigrant children.

http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/ - The Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) provides new populations with opportunities to maximize their potential in the United States, linking people in need to critical resources to assist them in becoming integrated members of American society.

Disabilities

https://www.disability.gov/ - This is the federal government website for information on disability programs and services nationwide. You can find thousands of resources on topics, such as how to apply for Social Security disability benefits, find a job and pay for accessible housing, to name just a few. Let Disability.gov guide you to the information you want.

http://www.acl.gov/Programs/CDAP/Index.aspx - The Center for Disability and Aging Policy advises and supports the ACL Administrator and Principal Deputy Administrator in developing effective Federal policies and programs to address the needs of individuals with disabilities and the aging of the nation’s population. The Center supports, plans, coordinates and oversees the implementation of policies, programs and special initiatives designed to overcome barriers that prevent older Americans and persons with disabilities from fully participating and contributing in an inclusive community life.

http://www.ada.gov/ - The ADA is one of America's most comprehensive pieces of civil rights legislation that prohibits discrimination and guarantees that people with disabilities have the same opportunities as everyone else to participate in the mainstream of American life -- to enjoy employment opportunities, to purchase goods and services, and to participate in State and local government programs and services.

Fatherhood

http://www.fatherhood.gov/about-us - The National Responsible Fatherhood Clearinghouse is an Office of Family Assistance (OFA) funded national resource for fathers, practitioners, programs/Federal grantees, states, and the public at-large who are serving or interested in supporting strong fathers and families.

Military Families

http://www.militaryonesource.com/skins/MOS/home.aspx - Military OneSource: Offers help with parenting and child care, education, relocation, financial and legal concerns, and everyday issues.

www.militaryhomefront.dod.mil/ - Military Homefront: DOD's website for official Military Community and Family Policy (MC&FP) program information, policy and guidance designed to help troops and their families, leaders, and service providers.

http://www.militaryfamily.org/ - National Military Family Association: Provides education and information regarding rights, benefits, and services for military families.

http://www.couragetocareforme.org/offline/ - Courage To Care For Me: Provides fact sheets on timely health topics relevant to military life developed by military health experts at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.

http://www.militarychild.org/ - Military Child Education Coalition: Helps military children cope with being transferred from school to school around the world.

http://www.naccrra.org/military-families - NACCRRA: Provides child care resources and referral agencies that help parents find quality child care.

For more information on how to access FRIENDS technical assistance on this issue, Cultural Responsiveness, CBCAP State Leads may contact your FRIENDS T/TA coordinator.