Diverse Groups

Who will benefit from culturally responsive programs and services?

All members of a diverse society benefit from a greater understanding of varying cultures and learning to become more responsive to groups of people different from their own. While CBCAP funded-services are often targeted to the broad population, under-served and under-represented groups are a particular focus of limited resources. The annual CBCAP Program Instruction (PI) highlights certain populations for the focus of outreach and services. Please use the links below for more information about those groups identified in the PI:


A Word About Terminology

Portrait of young happy man and woman holding newborn cute babe dressed in white unisex clothing. Caucasian smiling father and mother embracing tenderly adorable new born child. Happy family concept

A parent is not only a child’s biological mother or father. The term can also refer to caregivers or guardians who are responsible for the care of a child. This includes mothers and fathers, brothers and sisters, grandparents, other relatives, or non-related caregivers. Parenting is often not performed by one individual only, but by several family members at once. 1

All parents, regardless of age, gender, race, ethnicity, or sexual orientation need access to resources and information to support the successful care and nurturing of their children. Families can be complex and take different forms.  Parenting roles can also look different from family to family.  While both mothers and fathers play distinctive roles in the lives of their children, there are also other primary caregivers that influence child nurturing, development, and well-being.

Special Parent Groups

New Parents

For new parents, getting to know and understand their little one is paramount. The first days and weeks of a newborn’s life are a time of great wonder and joy for most new parents. However, being responsible for such a seemingly fragile baby can be intimidating. New parents may be unfamiliar with how a newborn looks and behaves. This can create anxiety and even fear in some new parents who must learn to bond with their child, understand their primitive reflexes, know their newborn’s sleeping and breathing patterns, provide proper nutrition, and become familiar with their general health and development.2

Mother and daughter bonding while drawing in their cozy bedroomTeen Parents

Teen parents face additional challenges. Before the birth, teenaged parents may begin to feel isolated from their peers, and frustrated by the many restrictions, particularly for the expectant teen mother, that a pregnancy imposes. 3 Risk factors for adolescent parents include: lack of life experience, lack of maturity, balancing their education with the need to parent and bond with their newborn, a higher potential for dropping out of school, lack of employment and other economic disadvantages, child care obstacles, and the need for additional emotional support.4

Parents in Our Communities

Consider the Data

  • In 2020, the teen birth rate was 15.4 births for every 1,000 females aged 15-19, down eight percent from 2019 and down 75 percent from the 1991 peak of 61.8. Nine in ten (91.7 percent) of these births occurred outside of marriage.5
  • Nearly 24 million children in the United States live in a single-parent family. This accounts for about one in every three children across America.6
  • According to 2021 estimates, approximately 14.5 million children who live in single parent families live with their mothers and 3.5 million children live in father-only households.7
  • Within single-parent families, approximately 6 million children live with cohabitating parents.8
  • S. census data shows that 7.1 million American grandparents are living with grandchildren who are under the age of 18. Approximately 2.3 million grandparents are raising their grandchildren and a third of these grandchildren are younger than 6 years old.9
  • Studies estimate that between 1 and 9 million children in the United States have at least one parent who is lesbian or gay. There are approximately 594,000 same-sex partner households, according to the 2000 Census, and there are children living in approximately 27 percent of those households.10

Creating Welcoming and Inclusive Spaces

Real American Soldier & Daughter Outdoor, Fort Carson, Colorado.It is important to be intentional about creating environments that are welcoming to diverse family structures such as divorced or separated parents, single parents, and same sex parents.

Ask parents what would make them feel comfortable in the spaces that programs are held.  This might include visual images that reflect their family structure in brochures, room decorations, and outreach materials.

Consider providing services and programs at times and locations that are convenient for parents.  This may be at times that are not typical office hours.  Also remember to accommodate the unique abilities, communication and learning styles of diverse parents.

Evidence-Based Programs for Parents

Almost all child abuse prevention programs are focused on supporting parents and providing them with high quality educational information. A variety of clearinghouses and registries offer descriptions of programs and their level of evidence when using them with identified populations.  FRIENDS offers a Crosswalk of Evidence-Based Programs:


The crosswalk is designed to help CBCAP State Lead Agencies and Tribal and Migrant CBCAP programs, as well as others, identify and assess family support and child abuse prevention programs. It is meant to be used as a starting point and is not an exhaustive list of available options. CBCAP programs should invest in programs and practices that are gathering evidence that they  produce positive outcomes for children and families.

Additional Resources


National Council for Adoption (NCFA)


The mission of the National Council for Adoption is to meet the diverse needs of children, birth parents, adopted individuals, adoptive families and all those touched by adoption through global advocacy, education, research, legislative action, and collaboration.  This article describes the demographics of adoptive parents.

Foster Parents

The Annie E. Casey Foundation https://www.aecf.org/blog/resources-for-foster-parents

10 Resources for Foster Parents.

The Annie E. Casey Foundation (AECF®) is devoted to developing a brighter future for millions of children and young people with respect to their educational, economic, social and health outcomes.

Grandparents and Other Kinship Caregivers

Generations United- Grand Families https://www.gu.org/explore-our-topics/grandfamilies/

The mission of Generations United is to improve the lives of children, youth and older people through intergenerational collaboration, public policies, and programs for the enduring benefit of all. Their National Center on GrandFamilies is a source of information regarding policies and resources available for grandparents who are the primary caretakers of their grandchildren.

Grandfamilies.org https://www.grandfamilies.org

A national legal resource in support of grand families within and outside the child welfare system.  Its mission is to educate individuals about state laws, legislation, and policy in support of grand families.

Grandfamilies & Kinship Support Network: A National Technical Assistance Center


This national technical assistance center helps government agencies and nonprofits in states, tribes, and territories work across jurisdictional and systemic boundaries to improve support and services for families where grandparents, other relatives or close family friends are raising children.

Child Welfare Information Gateway – Kinship Caregivers –


Resources for supporting kinship caregivers

New Parents

American Academy of Pediatrics website – www.healthychildren.org

HealthyChildren.org is a parenting website backed by 67,000 pediatricians committed to the attainment of optimal physical, mental, and social health and well-being for all infants, children, adolescents, and young adults.

Teen Parents

Helping Teen Parents and Their Children Build Healthy Futures

HealthyChildren.org is a parenting website backed by 67,000 pediatricians committed to the attainment of optimal physical, mental, and social health and well-being for all infants, children, adolescents, and young adults.

Office of Population Affairs (OPA) – Community Support for Young Parents (CYSP)


CSYP works to improve the health and well-being of expectant and parenting teens and young adults and their children, as well as young parents’ economic self-sufficiency.

Youth.gov – Expectant and Parenting Young Families


Resources on supporting pregnant and parenting teens.

Center for the Study of Social Policy – Youth Power, Parent Power


The Youth Power, Parent Power initiative mobilizes the collective action of expectant and parenting young people, researchers, and youth serving professionals to promote equity and justice for all young people and young families.

Two-Generation Approaches

Urban Institute – HOST Initiative in Action Two-Generation Approach | Urban Institute

HOST uses a two-generation strategy to support and empower families living in public and subsidized housing.  This whole-family wraparound approach combines intensive case management and supplemental support and services for adults and for children.


1“About UNICEF Parenting.” UNICEF, accessed November 29, 2023, https://www.unicef.org/parenting/about.

2“Getting to Know Your Newborn,” KidsHealth, last modified January 2023, accessed November 29, 2023, https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/newborn-variations.html.

3“Helping Teen Parents and Their Children Build Healthy Futures.” American Academy of Pediatrics, last accessed November 29, 2023. http://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/teen/dating-sex/Pages/TeenParents.aspx

4“Adolescent Health,” Office of Population Affairs, Accessed November 29, 2023.  https://opa.hhs.gov/adolescent-health?adolescent-development/reproductive-health-and-teen-pregnancy/teen-pregnancy-and-childbearing/index.html.

5Office of Population Affairs, “Adolescent Health.”

6“Child Well-Being in Single-Parent Families.” The Annie E. Casey Foundation, June 23, 2023, https://www.aecf.org/blog/child-well-being-in-single-parent-families. ‌

7The Annie E. Casey Foundation, “Child Well-Being.”

8The Annie E. Casey Foundation, “Child Well-Being.”

9“When Grandparents Are Called to Parent — Again,” AARP, accessed November 29, 2023, https://www.aarp.org/home-family/friends-family/info-2023/grandparents-become-parents-again.html#:~:text=U.S.%20census%20data%20shows%20that.

10“Same-Sex Parents and Their Children,” AAMFT, accessed November 29, 2023, https://www.aamft.org/Consumer_Updates/Same-sex_Parents_and_Their_Children.aspx#:~:text=Studies%20estimate%20that%20between%201.

Parents with Disabilities and Parents of Children with Disabilities

A Word about Terminology

Note:  Although CAPTA does not specifically define disability – it refers to the definition used in the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA Subpart B).  All parents, including parents with disabilities and/or those parenting a child with a disability, can benefit from tangible resources and emotional support. People with disabilities come from every walk of life and experience a range of access to resources.  The presence of a disability may exacerbate socioeconomic and racial disparities and other challenges a family may be facing. 1

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) offers helpful tips on using “person-first” language to communicate appropriately and respectfully with and about folks with a disability. 2

  • Use language that emphasizes abilities, not limitations (a person who uses a wheelchair, not a person confined to wheelchair)
  • Do not use language that suggests a lack of something (a person with cerebral palsy, not a cerebral palsy victim)
  • Emphasize the need for accessibility, not the disability (accessible parking not handicapped parking)
  • Do not use offensive language or language that implies negative stereotypes.
  • Do not portray people as inspirational, only because of their disability.

“It is best to ask individuals how they want you to refer to (or not refer to) their disability. In addition, it is important to note that people may want different levels of disclosure. Some people may feel more comfortable discussing their disabilities than others or may feel differently about disclosure in different situations.”  Adapted from Stanford Disability Language Guide, July 2019

People with Disabilities in Our Communities

Consider the Data

  • Census reports show that over three million children (4.3% of the under-18 population) in the United States had a disability in 2019, up 0.4 percentage points since 2008.3
  • In 2019, children living in poverty were more likely to have a disability (6.5%) than children living above the poverty threshold (3.8%).4
  • Higher rates of childhood disability exist among American Indian and Alaskan Native (AIAN), Black children, and children of more than one race compared to Non-Hispanic White Children.5
  • Current research reveals that there are 4.1 million parents with disabilities in the United States, roughly 6.2 percent of all American parents with children under the age of 18.6
  • According to The American Community Survey, a program of the United States Census there are an estimated 1.2 million parents with independent living disabilities.7

Creating Welcoming and Inclusive Spaces

Parents with disabilities and their families continue to experience significant accessibility barriers. These barriers not only impede the abilities of these parents to fulfill their parenting responsibilities but also affect the entire family.  As we engage parents in our community-based programming, how do we ensure a welcoming environment for families with disabilities?  Learn more about some of the barriers parents face and some helpful strategies for practitioners working with parents with disabilities in the following resources:

Prevention Strategies and Evidence-Based Resources

Many communities have initiatives to address the prevention of child maltreatment for children with disabilities. The Risk and Prevention of Maltreatment of Children with Disabilities bulletin includes risk and protective factors, state and community examples, evidence-based interventions, and additional resources to address prevention at various levels. The bulletin published by the Child Welfare Information Gateway includes the following prevention strategies focused on the community, family, and child levels.

  • Community level prevention: Encourage communities to share the responsibility for the well-being of children with disabilities. Help develop leadership skills in parents and family members of children with disabilities so they can be advocates for promoting the safety of their children. Promote inclusion of parents or children with disabilities in everyday life.
  • Family focused prevention: Ensure that parents have access to information about their child’s disability and community resources to help provide concrete and social support.
  • Child focused prevention: Ensure culturally responsive and age-appropriate opportunities for teaching children how to protect themselves from potential abuse and respond by telling someone they trust about it.

The following are resources on research-based methods to support individuals and communities with disabilities.


Additional Resources

The Arc: the largest national community-based organization advocating for and with people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and serving them and their families.  https://thearc.org/about-us/

The ARCH Respite Network: https://fcrinc.org/portfolio-items/arch-respite-network/

The mission of the ARCH National Respite Network and Resource Center is to assist and promote the development of quality respite and crisis care programs; to help families locate respite and crisis care services in their communities; and to serve as a strong voice for respite in all forums.

Child Welfare Information Gateway

The Risk and Prevention of Maltreatment of Children With Disabilities: Bulletin for Professionals 2018, Child Welfare Information Gateway, https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/focus.pdf

National Research Center for Parents with Disabilities, The Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandies University: https://heller.brandeis.edu/parents-with-disabilities/index.html

The National Research Center for Parents with Disabilities is a collaborative research and advocacy project that aims to support parents with disabilities. They are housed at the Lurie Institute for Disability Policy at Brandeis University and collaborate with other institutions.

Urban Institute. Families of Children with Disabilities Will Need Support beyond the Pandemic: https://www.urban.org/urban-wire/families-children-disabilities-will-need-support-beyond-pandemic, July 8, 2020. The Urban Institute is a nonprofit research organization that provides data and evidence to help advance upward mobility and equity.

U.S. Census Bureau. “Childhood Disability in the United States: 2019”.  https://www.census.gov/library/publications/2021/acs/acsbr-006.html

The University of WashingtonNational Resources for Parents of Children and Youth with Disabilities Website (https://www.washington.edu/doit/Brochures/Parents/naparent.html)

End Notes

1“Financial Inequality: Disability, Race and Poverty in America.” National Disability Institute. February 2019. https://www.nationaldisabilityinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/disability-race-poverty-in-america.pdf

2“Communicating with and about People with Disabilities.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. February 1, 2022. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/disabilityandhealth/materials/factsheets/fs-communicating-with-people

3“Childhood Disability Rate up in 2019 from 2008,” United States Census Bureau, March 25, 2021, htps://www.census.gov/library/stories/2021/03/united-states-childhood-disability-rate-up-in-2019-from-2008.html.

4US Census Bureau, “U.S. Childhood Disability Rate.”

5US Census Bureau, “U.S. Childhood Disability Rate.”

6National Council on Disability, “Rocking the Cradle: Ensuring the Rights of Parents with Disabilities and Their Children,” Brandeis University, September 27, 2012, https://heller.brandeis.edu/parents-with-disabilities/pdfs/rocking-the-cradle.pdf

7National Research Center for Parents with Disabilities, “Prevalence of Parents with Disabilities in the United States,” Brandeis University, August 2022, https://heller.brandeis.edu/parents-with-disabilities/data-hub/additional-resources/prevalence.html.


Racial and Ethnic Groups

A Word About Terminology

Race and ethnicity are difficult to define. The U.S. Census Bureau uses self-identification for calculating race and ethnicity with terms established by the Office of Management and Budget. Census respondents select the race or races with which they identify and indicate whether they are of Hispanic or Latino origin (the only categories offered for ethnicity).1 Some experts have traditionally provided definitions that use a more complex combination of biological, historical, and genetic references as well as social and cultural characteristics and attitudes. Many people associate race with biology and physical characteristics and ethnicity with culture.

Race and ethnicity are now often described as a social construct. These are ideas that have been defined by society and are accepted by popular agreement.  Paula Braveman and Parker Dominguez write in Abandon “Race”. Focus on Racism, “The concept of ‘race’ emerged in the 1600s with the trans-Atlantic slave trade, justifying slavery; it has been used to justify exploitation, denigration, and decimation.” Although scientists widely agree that race is a social construct, race is a term ingrained in most aspects of our culture and it supports ideas of inherent biological differences based on physical appearance.2

The American Psychological Association (APA) states, “Race is a socially defined concept sometimes used to designate a portion, or “subdivision,” of the human population with common physical characteristics, ancestry, or language. The term is also loosely applied to geographic, cultural, religious, or national groups. Self-reported race frequently varies owing to changing social contexts and an individual’s possible identification with more than one race. Ethnicity is social categorization based on an individual’s membership in or identification with a particular cultural or ethnic group.”3

It’s important to note that the terms African American and Black are often used interchangeably.  According to Community Commons, an online platform that supports the advancement of equitable community health and well-being, “Black and African American are used to describe a diverse array of people. Racial and ethnic identities, and the language surrounding them are continuously evolving.”

Discrimination and Historical Trauma

Many groups have suffered from racial and ethnic discrimination and historical trauma, which correlate with rates of social, economic, and health problems experienced by members of these groups.  Examples include disparate rates of poverty, unemployment, poor health outcomes and other conditions that lead to poor quality of life and even early death Discrimination refers to the differential treatment of racial, ethnic, religious, socioeconomic, and other groups at the individual level and the institutional/structural level.

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s (SAMHSA) GAINS Center for Behavioral Health and Justice Transformation describes historical trauma as cumulative and collective with the impact manifesting itself emotionally and psychologically. Those who have never experienced the traumatic stressor, such as children and descendants, can still exhibit signs and symptoms of trauma. Examples of events that caused historical trauma include slavery, the Holocaust, forced migration, and the colonization and forceful taking of lands from Native Americans.5

Many well-respected organizations have revisited their practices, policies, and views regarding race and ethnicity in recent years. The APA Council of Representatives adopted a resolution in October 2021 apologizing to “people of color for APA’s role in promoting, perpetuating, and failing to challenge racism, racial discrimination, and human hierarchy in [the] U.S.”4 The resolution includes specific language regarding wrongs the APA feels it committed and actions that will be taken in the future to improve.

Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Our Communities

Consider the data:

The overall racial and ethnic diversity of the country has changed since 2010, according to the 2020 U.S. Census. The most prevalent racial or ethnic group for the United States is White, non-Hispanic at 57.8%. This decreased from 63.7% in 2010.6 According to the Census, Latino or Hispanic residents comprise 18.7% of the population, and Black and Asian American or Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander are 12.1% and 6.1%. American Indian and Alaska Natives, people of two or more races, and other races comprise the remaining 5%.  Latino or Hispanic and Asian Americans are the fastest-growing racial and ethnic groups nationally, increasing by 23% and 35.6%, respectively, from 2010 to 2020.7  

The racial and ethnic composition of the Nation’s children continues to change. In 2022, 49% of U.S. children were White, non-Hispanic; 26% were Hispanic; 14% were Black, non-Hispanic; 6% were Asian, non-Hispanic; and 6% were non-Hispanic-all other races. The percentage of children who are Hispanic has grown substantially, increasing from 9% of the child population in 1980 to 26% in 2022.8

Creating Welcoming and Inclusive Spaces

It is important to address implicit bias and racial and ethnic disproportionality as we work to provide equitable and inclusive practices, opportunities, and welcoming spaces. According to the American Psychological Association (APA), “implicit bias is a negative attitude, of which one is not consciously aware, against a specific social group.  Implicit bias is thought to be shaped by experience and based on learned associations between particular qualities and social categories, including race and/or gender.”

Disproproportionality is the overrepresentation or underrepresentation of a racial or ethnic group compared with its percentage in the total population. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 2021)

The CBCAP Program is designed to foster understanding, appreciation, and knowledge of diverse populations to effectively prevent and treat child abuse and neglect (CBCAP Program Instruction). Addressing the unique needs of families is critical to the success of community-based programs which includes providing formal and informal resources to support families, providing inviting and accessible environments for services, and hiring staff that is culturally responsive to the needs of program participants.9

The American Planning Association identifies four steps for creating inclusive, anti-racist spaces. The Association recommendations include carefully selecting locations – is the service or space located in an area that is accessible to those being served; developing comfortable spaces where interaction is built into the environment; facilitating conversations across all channels, both digitally and physically and engaging the community in planning, programming, and partnerships.10 

Prevention Strategies and Evidence-Based Practices

CBCAP funds programs that are designed for families from diverse groups.  Examples of programs that have been developed specifically for Native American, African American, and Latino families are described below.

Positive Indian Parenting, an 8–10-week curriculum, developed by the National Indian Child Welfare Association, that provides practical and culturally specific training for American Indian and Alaska Native parents. The class provides a brief, practical, culturally specific training program to explore the values and attitudes expressed in traditional Native American child-rearing practices and applies these values to modern skills in parenting.11

The Effective Black Parenting Program (EBPP) was the first culturally adapted group-based parenting skill-building program for parents of African American children aged 17 and younger. The program’s goals include promoting family unity and pride and helping families deal with racism. The program utilizes culturally sensitive approaches and teaches culturally specific parenting strategies for Black and African American parents, such as positive communication about heritage and using African American language expressions and African proverbs to illustrate the cultural roots of the program’s content.12

The University of Georgia’s Center for Family Research has developed a more targeted evidence-based program for rural African American families with adolescent and teenaged youth. The Strong African American Families (SAAF) Program is a 7-session program designed for youth aged 10–14 and their caregivers, while SAAF-Teen was developed to address the disproportionate burden African American teens (14-16) experience from involvement with risky behaviors. The goal of SAAF is to build on the strengths of African American families and support parents and youth during the transition from early adolescence to the teen years with a specific emphasis on helping young people avoid risky and dangerous behaviors. SAAF-T aims to build on the strengths of African American families to promote positive development throughout the teenage years by focusing on reducing risks that can get in the way of positive development.13

In Washington, the Yakima Valley Farm Workers Clinic (YVFWC) offers culturally specific parent education as part of their health care coordinated care system.  A promising practice, Los Niños Bien Educados is a 12-session program, offered in Spanish, that helps parents teach their children to be respectful of others and believe in themselves. Programmatic goals include increasing family and community protective factors and resilience and demonstrating the benefits of collaboration among child abuse and neglect prevention programming, early learning programming, and youth delinquency and gang prevention programming. For more information visit: https://friendsnrc.org/cbcap/tribal-and-migrant-grantees/

Additional Resources

Child Trends

Child Trends promotes the well-being of all children and youth through applied research that informs public policy, builds the evidence base for what works and mines data to identify young people who are overlooked or ill served by public systems.

Child Welfare Information Gateway

The Child Welfare Information Gateway provides trusted resources on the child welfare continuum. CWIG provides publications, research, and learning tools selected by experts to support thriving children, youth, families, and communities.

FRIENDS National Center for Community-Based Child Abuse (CBCAP) 

FRIENDS seeks to effectively support CBCAP lead agencies and other organizations to meet their responsibility to promote optimal outcomes for all children and families and this includes ensuring services are culturally appropriate and prioritize equity.

Cultural Humility Practice Principles – National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) 


The purpose of NCWWI is to develop and support a child welfare workforce that can equitably meet the needs of the most vulnerable children and families.

Culturally Responsive Child Welfare Practice (CW360) – Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare (CASCW) https://cascw.umn.edu/portfolio-items/winter-2015-cw360/

The mission of CASCW is to improve the well-being of children and families who are involved in the child welfare system by educating human services professionals and fostering collaboration across systems and disciplines.

U.S. Office of Minority Health (OMH)  

The mission of the Office of Minority Health is to improve the health of racial and ethnic minority populations through the development of health policies and programs that will help eliminate health disparities.

End Notes

1U.S. Census Bureau. Accessed January 19, 2024, https://www.census.gov/topics/population/race/about.html.

2Paula Braveman and Parker Dominquez, “Abandon Race. Focus on Racism,” Frontiers in Public Health, published September 7,2021. Accessed January 22, 2024, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8452910/

3“About the Topic of Race,” US Census Bureau, accessed January 19, 2024, https://www.census.gov/topics/population/race/about.html.

4“Trauma” Administration for Children and Families, accessed November 29, 2023, https://www.acf.hhs.gov/trauma-toolkit/trauma-concept.

5Resolution adopted by the APA Council of Representatives on October 29, 2021, American Psychological Association, accessed January 22, 2024, https://www.apa.org/about/policy/racism-apology.

6Eric Jensen, Nicholas Jones, Megan Rabe, Beverly Pratt, Lauren Medina, Kimberly Orozco and Lindsay Spell, “The Chance That Two People Chosen at Random Are of Different Race or Ethnicity Groups Has Increased Since 2010,” US Census, last modified August 12, 2021, accessed November 29, 2023, https://www.census.gov/library/stories/2021/08/2020-united-states-population-more-racially-ethnically-diverse-than-2010.html.

7William Frey, “Mapping America’s Diversity with the 2020 Census,” last modified September 21, 2021, accessed November 29, 2023, https://www.brookings.edu/articles/mapping-americas-diversity-with-the-2020-census/.

8“America’s Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2023,” ChildStats, accessed November 29, 2023, https://www.childstats.gov/americaschildren/demo.asp.

9“Culturally Effective Organizations,” Friends NRC,” Friends NRC, accessed November 29, 2023, https://friendsnrc.org/prevention/cultural-effectiveness/.

10“Four Steps to Creating Inclusive Anti-Racist Third Spaces: Help community connections to flourish,” American Planning Association, accessed January 19, 2024, https://www.planning.org/planning/2020/dec/tools-how-to/.

11“NICWA Positive Indian Parenting,” Tribal Access to Justice Innovation, accessed November 29, 2023,   https://tribaljustice.org/places/child-welfare-crimes-against-children/nicwa-positive-indian-parenting/.

12“DCCTF’s Effective Black Parenting Program,” California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse, last modified September 2023, accessed November 29, 2023, https://www.cebc4cw.org/program/effective-black-parenting-program/detailed.

13“The Strong African American Families Program,” Center for Family Research, University of Georgia, accessed November 29, 2023, https://cfr.uga.edu/saaf-programs/saaf/.

Engaging Fathers and Male Caregivers

A Word about Terminology

What is Father Engagement?

“The purposeful inclusion of fathers in human services programs with the goal of improving outcomes for fathers, children, and families. Fathers can be biological, social, or legal. They may live in the same household or live apart from one or more of their kids.”1

This page uses the term father, to include male caregivers in various roles, including grandfathers, stepfathers, and other titles used for males that are focused on providing positive care and support of a child or children.

A father’s active involvement with their child can have a positive impact on the child’s social, emotional, and cognitive development. Children who grow up with their fathers or who experience social and emotional support from positive male role models tend to do better in several areas, including:

  • better cognitive outcomes, even as infants
  • higher self-esteem and less depression as teenagers
  • higher grades, test scores, and overall academic achievement
  • higher levels of empathy and other pro-social behavior

They are also at lower risk for poor childhood outcomes such as:

  • neglect and abuse
  • incarceration as juveniles
  • drug and alcohol abuse
  • suicide 2,3,4

Fathers in Our Communities

Consider the Data

“The proportion of children growing up with a resident dad is at the highest since 1989. Slightly more than three-quarters of children today (75.9%), or 54.5 million of our nation’s 72.3 million, can count a resident dad as a housemate.”5

The U.S. Census also indicates, 18.4 million, 1 in 4 children lived in a home without a biological, step, or adoptive father. 6 “The number of single fathers in the United States grew from approximately 1.7 million in 1990 to 3.3 million in 2020”.7

Creating Father-Friendly Environments

Child-serving systems do well when they intentionally focus on the engagement of fathers in planning and implementation strategies. It is important for the prevention community to work collaboratively with diverse groups of fathers to promote culturally appropriate and father friendly strategies that support family and community well-being.

Here are a few tips to consider when creating a father friendly environment in your organization and programs:

  • Provide training to staff on building positive rapport and relationships with fathers.
  • Create a father-friendly physical environment (pictures of diverse fathers as part of décor, reading material).
  • Plan and provide program services at convenient hours for fathers.
  • Host group activities for fathers and their children.

Resources that provide additional information on creating welcoming environments:

Prevention Strategies and Evidence-Based Programs

There are a wide variety of strategies and resources to support fatherhood initiatives and interventions in prevention and family strengthening environments, including the two toolkits below:

  1. The National Responsible Fatherhood Clearinghouse’s Responsible Fatherhood Toolkit offers a framework and activities for building and sustaining responsible fatherhood programs, including  special topics such as fathers of children with special needs, fatherhood issues in the context of the child welfare system, cultural responsiveness, non-residential fathers, young fathers, and fathers navigating incarceration and re-entry.
  2. The Father Friendliness Organizational Self-Assessment and Planning Tool, developed by The National Center for Strategic Nonprofit Planning and Community Leadership (NPCL) in partnership with The National Head Start Association (NHSA), can help family service programs assess their organization’s readiness to provide services to fathers and father figures.

In addition, identifying dedicated staff for your fatherhood engagement planning is key.  According to research, “Hiring staff who can build rapport with fathers and develop ongoing relationships of trust and commitment” is key to helping with recruitment and retention efforts.8 Many fatherhood programs have had success in hiring fathers or males from the local community which can lead to positive recruitment of participants and the overall success of fatherhood programs.

Additional Resources

Birth to 5 Father Engagement Guide

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children & Families, ECLKC  https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/family-engagement/birth-5-father-engagement-guide/creating-father-friendly-environments-early-childhood-programs

Child Welfare Information Gateway – Engaging Fathers page


How Can We Better Engage Fathers in Prevention?

Casey Family Programs, Strong Families. Issue Brief – February 2019 https://www.casey.org/media/SF_Engaging-Fathers-Prevention.pdf

Fathers Incorporated

Established in 2004, Fathers Incorporated (FI) has a unique seat at the national table, working with leaders in the White House, Congress, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Family Law, Business, Faith-Based and the Responsible Fatherhood Movement. FI works to change the current societal and cultural definition of family to be inclusive of fathers. FI works collaboratively with organizations around the country to identify and advocate for social and legislative changes that lead to healthy father involvement with children, regardless of the father’s marital or economic status, or geographic location. https://fathersincorporated.com/

National Fatherhood Initiative

A leading provider of research on father presence and father involvement, research and evidence-based fatherhood programs and resources, staff training, and father-engagement planning services for human service organizations and practitioners. https://www.fatherhood.org/

National Responsible Fatherhood Clearinghouse

The Clearinghouse is an Office of Family Assistance (OFA) funded national resource under the USDHHS for fathers, practitioners, programs/Federal grantees, states, and the public-at-large who are serving or interested in supporting strong fathers and families. The Clearinghouse goals include disseminating current research and proven strategies with dads, researchers, policymakers, and other stakeholders. The website includes tips for dads, fatherhood programs, and a library with resources on responsible fatherhood. https://www.fatherhood.gov/



1“Father Presence,” National Responsible Fatherhood Clearinghouse, accessed February 13, 2024  https://www.fatherhood.gov/for-dads/father-presence.

2 “Involved Fathers Play An Important Role In Children’s Lives,” Institute for Research on Poverty, February 2020, https://www.irp.wisc.edu/resource/involved-fathers-play-an-important-role-in-childrens-lives/.

3 “A Father’s Impact on Child Development,” Children’s Bureau, May 12, 2023, https://www.all4kids.org/news/blog/a-fathers-impact-on-child-development/.

4“What is Father Engagement?,” Mathematica, accessed January 26, 2024, https://www.mathematica.org/publications/what-is-father-engagement-infographic.

5 Christopher A. Brown, “Proportion of Children Living with Resident Dads at 34-Year High,” National Fatherhood Initiative, accessed February 2, 2024, https://www.fatherhood.org/championing-fatherhood/proportion-of-children-living-with-resident-dads-at-34-year-high.

6 Stacey L. Shipe, PhD, MSc, Lynsay Ayer, PhD, and Kate Guastaferro, PhD, MPH, “American Single Father Homes: A Growing Public Health Priority” Am J Public Health, 11, no 1 (January 2022): 21-23, accessed February 2, 2024, 112(1): 21–23, doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306591.

 7“Statistics Tell the Story: Fathers Matter,” National Fatherhood Initiative, accessed February 2, 2024,  https://www.fatherhood.org/father-absence-statistic .

8 “Program Attendance and Retention,” National Responsible Fatherhood Clearinghouse, accessed February 13, 2024,  https://www.fatherhood.gov/sites/default/files/resource_files/nrfc_tipcard_source_508_0.pdf.

LGBTQIA2S+ Youth and Caregivers

A Word About Terminology

Happy diverse young friends celebrating gay pride festival - LGBTQ community concept

Youth.gov states that there is no universally accepted acronym for communities that are not heterosexual and/or express their gender in different ways. Each term represents a unique experience of a distinct population. “Also, it is important to remember that sexual orientation and gender identity intersect with cultural and other aspects of a young person’s identity, such as faith/spirituality and race and ethnicity, and can also change over time.” 1  With ever evolving identities, and some choosing no label at all, it is difficult to have an all-inclusive acronym. Many, including Youth.gov use LGBTQ+ with the “+” indicating the evolving descriptors that people use to name their identity and experience. LGBT stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender. The “Q” is used to denote both “Queer” and “Questioning.”  The slightly longer LGBTQIA2S explicitly includes Intersex, and an “A” which can denote Asexual or sometimes Ally. 2S means Two-Spirit, an identity used by some Native American and Alaskan Native communities.  To learn more, visit Youth.Gov https://youth.gov/youth-topics/lgbtq-youth/key-terms-and-concepts

In recent years, some have begun using the acronym SOGIE – which stands for Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Expression to be inclusive of all identities and expressions without naming any specifically. The resources highlighted on this page use a variety of different terms. Cultural responsiveness invites us to be aware of what descriptors are used by the individuals and communities with whom we are interacting and to remain curious, respectful, and flexible as terms evolve.

LGBTQ+ People in Our Communities

Consider the Data:

  • There are an estimated 1,994,000 youth in the United States that identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. This estimate represents 9.5% of the population of youth ages 13-17 in the United States.2
  • There are 114,000 households led by same sex couples that are raising children in the US. Same-sex couples are 7 times more likely than different-sex couples to be raising a child who is adopted or in foster care.3

These numbers alone tell us that LGBTQ+ youth and adults are living and leading families in our communities and CBCAP programming should be inclusive of their needs and experiences.

LGBTQ+ youth are over-represented in the child welfare system with “30% of youth in foster care identifying as LGBTQ+ and 5% as transgender, as compared to 11 percent and 1 percent among youth not in foster care.”5  An information memorandum was issued in 2022 by the Department of Health and Human Services to help guide the work of federal contractors and other Title IV-E and Title IV-B agencies in  competently serving families of LGBTQ+ youth. This memorandum makes it clear that LGBTQ+ youth and their families must be a focus of community-based child abuse prevention efforts. 

Creating Welcoming and Inclusive Spaces

Teenager,Is,Holding,A,Black,Board,With,Text,In,WhiteIn addition to equipping practitioners to build knowledge, skills and awareness, there are opportunities for improving organizational inclusion. Organizations can communicate that they are a welcoming safe space equipped to address the need of LGBTQ youth and families through careful consideration of their policies, practices, and by listening to the communities they serve.

The National SOGIE Center (https://sogiecenter.org/ ) offers model policies, guidance on data collection, and resources and trainings to enhance organizational practice.

Advocates for Youth (https://www.advocatesforyouth.org/ ) works alongside youth working for justice, sexual health, and rights.  They developed a Creating Safe Spaces Toolkit (https://www.advocatesforyouth.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/Creating-Safer-Spaces-Toolkit-Nov-13.pdf) that shares youth leader perspectives on affirming spaces, organizational checklists, model policies and other resources so that organizations can reflect on their practices and consider change.

Best and Evidence-Based Practices

There is significant research that stresses the importance of family acceptance for LGBTQ+ youth in fostering resilience, enhancing wellbeing, and in significantly reducing the risk of self-harm or death by suicide. Family support and strengthening programming can play a critical role in facilitating family acceptance that is known to be such a positive game changer in the lives of LGBTQ+ youth.4

The National Quality Improvement Center on Tailored Services, Placement Stability, and Permanency for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Questioning, and Two-Spirit Children and Youth in Foster Care (QIC- LGBTQ2S) was established as a 5-year grant,  in collaboration with the Children’s Bureau to develop, integrate, and sustain best practices and programs that improve outcomes for children and youth in foster care with diverse sexual orientations, gender identities, and gender expressions (SOGIE).  The resources they compiled are summarized on a Children’s Bureau webpage (https://www.acf.hhs.gov/cb/lgbtqia2s-resources).  The resources are housed at the National SOGIE Center website at the University of Connecticut. Implementation sites around the country established these resources and practices:

Happy lesbian multiethnic couple with childen at home. Family lgbt child happiness concept

  • AFFIRM Youth: an evidence-based, eight module, manualized coping skills training intervention focused on reducing mental health issues and behavioral risks experienced by LGBTQ+ populations.
  • AFFIRM Caregiver is an evidence-informed, seven session, manualized intervention to enhance affirmative parenting practices that promote the safety and wellbeing of LGBTQ+ youth.
  • The Family Acceptance Project conducted research establishing the difference that parents and other family members of LGBTQ+ youth make in their child’s health, and identified supportive behaviors that can promote youth’s health and well-being. Their research focused on diverse families including those who were very religious. (Ryan,2021). Their research led to the development of the Family Acceptance Project’s Family Support Model, identified by the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention as a Best Practice for Suicide Prevention, and listed in their Best Practices Registry. The project has developed several research-based resources for practitioners and families.
  • The Youth Acceptance Project(YAP) is a clinical model that works with families of LGBTQ+ youth to address their fears and worries related to their LGBTQ+ child and help the family learn new and supportive behaviors to improve their youth’s well-being.
  • Journey Ahead is a multi-session intervention for young people who identify as LGBTQ+. The program was created to be implemented with youth experiencing multiple life stressors or systems involvement. The program has a special focus on the intersection of race, ethnicity, and LGBTQ+ identity. Journey ahead can be delivered in-person or virtually. Virtual implementation typically spans six weeks.

More information and additional resources are available at the SOGIE Center (https://sogiecenter.org/programs/) The Center is a collaborative of multiple organizations that work to improve the lives of children and youth with diverse Sexual Orientation, Gender Identify, and Expressions (SOGIE) involved in systems of care.

Additional Resources

The notation after a resource notes the intended audience or focus of the resource: Y = LGBTQ+ Youth; F=Families/Caregivers; T= transgender adults and youth; A=LGBTQ+ Adults; P= Practitioners; O=Concerns organizational practice or systems level initiatives

American Academy of Pediatrics:

American Psychological Association:

Asking about SOGIE: Matarese, M., Weeks, A., Fullenkamp, J., Greeno, E., Betsinger, A., Hammond, P. (2022). System-Wide SOGIE Data Collection with Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, Detroit, MI. The Institute for Innovation & Implementation, University of Maryland School of Social Work. Retrieved from https://sogiecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/04/Asking-About-SOGIE-Pilot-Implementation-Guide.pdf    (O)

Center for Excellence for LGBTQ+ Behavioral Health Equity – offers training, technical assistance and resources aimed at supporting Behavioral Health practitioners in supporting the population of people identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, intersex, two-spirit, and other diverse sexual orientations, gender identities, and expressions. https://lgbtqequity.org/  (P, O)

Human Rights Campaign Foundation: A Resource for Black Families, Family Members, and Caregivers of Black Transgender, Non-Binary, And LGB Youth, authored by Kamela Heyward-Rotimi.  Published on February 15, 2023. https://hrc-prod-requests.s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Black-Families-and-Caregivers-021523.pdf. (F,P)

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https://www.cdc.gov/lgbthealth/index.htm Information and resources for youth and adults. (F, Y, T, A, P)

PFLAG – an organization dedicated to supporting LGBTQ+ people and those who love them.  In-person and virtual support, publications, and information. https://pflag.org/find-resources/ (F, Y, A)

Transgender Law Center – the largest trans-led organization in the US. They engage in strategies to “keep transgender people alive, thriving, and fighting for liberation.”  Has information and resources. https://transgenderlawcenter.org/ (T, P, F)


1“Key Terms and Concepts,” Federal Interagency Working Group on Youth Programs, accessed August 31, 2023, https://youth.gov/youth-topics/lgbtq-youth/key-terms-and-concepts.

2“LGBT Youth Population in the United States,” Williams Institute, September 2020, https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/lgbt-parenting-us/

3“How Many Same-Sex Couples in the US Are Raising Children?” Williams Institute, July 2018, https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/lgbt-parenting-us/.

4Caitlin Ryan, “Helping Diverse Families Learn to Support Their LGBTQ Children to Prevent Health and Mental Health Risks and Promote Well-Being,” Family Acceptance Project, accessed August 31, 2023, https://lgbtqfamilyacceptance.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/FAP-Overview_Helping-Diverse-Families6.pdf.

5Laura Baams, Bianca D.M. Wilson, and Stephen T. Russell, “LGBTQ Youth in Unstable Housing and Foster Care.” Pediatrics 143 (3): e20174211, accessed September 1, 2023, htps://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-4211.

Families who are homeless and those at risk of homelessness

Despite some gains in the last decade in reducing overall U.S. homelessness, family homelessness remains a big problem. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s 2016 Point-In-Time homelessness count identified almost 200,000 families with children experiencing homelessness – a full 35% of the homeless population. Of the people in families with children, 60% were under age 18. At the same time, the Department of Education’s annual data summary of students showed approximately 1.2 million students were identified as experiencing some form of homelessness during the 2014-2015 school year.”1

Families experiencing homelessness share many of the same characteristics of very low-income, housed families living in poverty. When families encounter an unforeseen housing or financial crisis—a loss of employment, a death in the family, a medical emergency, violence or abuse in the family, etc. —they can fall into a situation where they cannot maintain their housing and end up experiencing homelessness.

Families experiencing homelessness and housing instability face significant challenges and trauma, including increased exposure to and risk of family and community violence. They move frequently and often double up in overcrowded (and sometimes unsafe) housing with relatives or friends. Others sleep in cars and campgrounds or send their children to stay with relatives or family acquaintances to avoid entering a homeless shelter or becoming involved with public systems like child welfare.

When families experience homelessness, children face a significantly higher risk of chronic or unaddressed health and developmental issues than their peers. Homelessness can also increase the risk of family separation or delay reunification, especially for children in foster care.

To learn more about homelessness and to find resources in your state or community, visit the resources below.


Child Welfare Information Gateway (https://www.childwelfare.gov/topics/systemwide/service-array/housing/)
Child Welfare Information Gateway’s searchable website is a valuable source of information and resources about housing needs and services for low-income families, including those involved with the child welfare system. Resources, including state and local examples, are grouped by the topics “housing & child welfare” and “housing for relative/kinship caregivers.”

U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH) (https://www.usich.gov/goals/families)
USICH coordinates the federal response to homelessness by partnering with 19 Federal agencies, state and local governments, advocates, service providers, and people experiencing homelessness. The USICH’s Opening Doors is the first multi-partner federal strategic plan to prevent and end homelessness. Its Ending Family Homelessness webpage provides an overview of the issue, progress to-date, and links to tools and resources.

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Homeless Assistance (HUD) (https://www.hudexchange.info/homelessness-assistance/)
The HUD Homeless Assistance web portal lists and provides brief descriptions of a broad range of homeless resources and programs.

Administration for Children and Families (ACF), Office of Early Childhood Development (ECD) (https://www.acf.hhs.gov/ecd/interagency-projects/ece-services-for-homeless-children)
Preventing family and youth homelessness is a key priority of ACF’s Office of Regional Operations, which partners with states and local programs to help vulnerable and low-income youth and families to avoid homelessness, access affordable housing, and provide needed supports.

Administration for Children and Families, Office of Regional Operations(https://www.acf.hhs.gov/oro/priorities/family-youth-homelessness)
Preventing family and youth homelessness is a key priority of ACF’s Office of Regional Operations, which partners with states and local programs to help vulnerable and low-income youth and families to avoid homelessness, access affordable housing, and provide needed supports.

American Institutes for Research (AIR), National Center on Family Homelessness (https://www.air.org/center/national-center-family-homelessness)
The AIR National Center on Family Homelessness webpage provides an overview of the issue, including data snapshots. There is also a link for anyone that is “In Need of Assistance” with a list of links to resources.

National Alliance to End Homelessness (http://www.endhomelessness.org/pages/families_overview)
The websites of these national networks include research and data, as well as resources for activists.

1 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development AHAR Part 1. Retrieved from https://www.hudexchange.info/resources/documents/2016-AHAR-Part-1.pdf

Unaccompanied youth who are homeless

The nation’s first comprehensive federal strategy to prevent and end homelessness defines “unaccompanied youth” as minors under 18 and young adults between the ages of 18 and 24, including parenting youth, who are unaccompanied by a parent, legal guardian, or caretaker.1 According to the National Coalition for the Homeless, half a million unaccompanied youth will experience homelessness in any given year.2

Family problems, economic circumstances, racial disparities, and mental health, and substance use disorders are the often interrelated factors that contribute to youth homelessness. Of these, family problems are the principal reason that young people leave home. In some cases, youth leave after years of physical and sexual abuse, strained relationships, addiction of a family member, and parental neglect. Some groups of youth are particularly vulnerable and over-represented among the population of youth who experience homelessness. This includes:

  • youth who self-identify as lesbian, gay, bi-sexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ)
  • pregnant and parenting youth
  • youth with disabilities
  • Native American youth
  • victims of trafficking and exploitation, and
  • youth involved with juvenile justice and child welfare systems.

There is a strong link between youth homelessness and trafficking. The largest-ever combined sample of homeless youth in the United States and Canada revealed that nearly one-fifth are victims of human trafficking, including those trafficked for sex, labor, or both, with LGBTQ youth and young women disproportionately affected.3

Some youth experience homelessness when they exit foster or institutional care. In one study, almost one in five youth who were in foster care at 17 years old reported two years later that they had been homeless at some point during those two years.4

Another major contributor to youth homelessness, family economic problems or financial crises, is a general lack of resources, such as a shortage of affordable housing, limited employment opportunities, insufficient wages, and no medical insurance or inadequate welfare benefits.

Please visit the resources below to learn more about efforts to end youth homelessness and find resources in your state or community.


Child Welfare Information Gateway (https://www.childwelfare.gov/)
Child Welfare Information Gateway’s searchable website contains numerous resources related to youth homelessness, including those specific to sex trafficking of children and youth, and to supportive housing programs, including those serving pregnant/parenting teens and young people transitioning from foster care.

U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH) (https://www.usich.gov/goals/youth)
Helping the Needy provides a list of homeless shelters by state and city, social service organizations, including soup kitchens and rent assistance programs, and news updates on the latest issues.

Department of Housing and Urban Development – Homelessness Assistance (https://www.hudexchange.info/homelessness-assistance/resources-for-homeless-youth/resources-for-homeless-youth-service-providers/#planning-your-coordinated-community-approach)
Resources for youth service providers and their partners are highlighted on the HUD website. HUD, along with many other federal agencies, manages and funds programs such as local homeless assistance agencies, emergency shelters, food assistance programs, housing counseling, and job training and placement assistance.

Administration for Children and Families, Children’s Bureau (CB) (https://www.acf.hhs.gov/cb)
CB offers anti-trafficking programs focused on children and youth who are at risk of abuse or neglect and those who are involved with the child welfare system. Its Capacity Building Center for States supports states and territories in planning and implementing the Preventing Sex Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act.

Administration for Children and Families, Family Youth Services Bureau (FYSB) (https://www.acf.hhs.gov/fysb/programs/runaway-homeless-youth/about)
FYSB’s Runaway and Homeless Youth Program supports emergency shelters and longer-term transitional living and maternity group home programs. Its Street Outreach Program provides outreach to run away and homeless youth on the streets or in areas that increase the risk of sexual exploitation.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Homelessness Programs and Resources (https://www.samhsa.gov/homelessness-programs-resources)
this page features SAMHSA’s programs and resources which help prevent and end homelessness among people with mental or substance use disorders.

National Coalition for the Homeless – Youth Projects (https://nationalhomeless.org/category/youth/)
The National Coalition for the Homeless website offers a list of activities and events to help highlight the issue and provide opportunities to take action.

A Way Home America (http://awayhomeamerica.org/)
A Way Home America is a national initiative to build the movement to prevent and end homelessness among young people that partner closely with youth, advocates, researchers, philanthropy, and service providers as well as federal agencies.

Homeless Shelter Directory (http://www.homelessshelterdirectory.org/)
Helping the Needy provides a list of homeless shelters by state and city, social service organizations, including soup kitchens and rent assistance programs, and news updates on the latest issues.

1.United States Interagency Council on Homelessness. Retrieved from https://www.usich.gov/resources/uploads/asset_library/Federal-Definitions-of-Youth-Homelessness.pdf

2.National Coalition for the Homeless, Youth Homelessness. Retrieved from https://nationalhomeless.org/statistics-general-information/

3.Labor and Sex Trafficking Among Homeless Youth. Retrieved from The Modern Slavery Research Project https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5887a2a61b631bfbbc1ad83a/t/5a7490fdc8302508d6b76f1c/1517588734590/Labor+and+Sex+Trafficking+Among+Homeless+Youth.pdf

4.Administration for Children and Families (2014). National Youth in Transition Database Data Brief # 4. Washington, DC. Retrieved from https://www.acf.hhs.gov/cb/report/national-youth-transition-database-data-brief-4

Adult former victims of child abuse and neglect or domestic violence

The long-term impact of experiencing child abuse and neglect varies considerably among adults. For some adult former victims of child abuse, neglect, or domestic violence, the effects can be chronic and debilitating, other adults have less adverse outcomes, despite their histories. Critical factors that may influence the way child abuse and neglect affects adults include the frequency and duration of maltreatment and if more than one type of maltreatment occurred during their childhood.1

The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACES) collaborative research study demonstrates the long term impact of childhood experiences such as abuse, neglect, or witnessing domestic violence, crime, parental conflict, mental illness, and substance abuse in the home. These ACEs are strongly related to challenges in development and a wide range of health problems across the lifespan. The higher the number of ACEs experienced, the more significant the impact over time. Having a comprehensive strategy to provide services to parents who are adult former victims of domestic violence, child abuse, and neglect can help prevent future child abuse and neglect in a family.


FRIENDS NC Website – ACES in Prevention (click here)

The ACEs Study (https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/childabuseandneglect/acestudy/about.html)

National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64896/ and http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64895/)
National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine: Substance Abuse Treatment for Persons with Child Abuse and Neglect Issues, Comprehensive Treatment for Adult Survivors of Child Abuse and Neglect, and Screening and Assessing Adults For Childhood Abuse and Neglect.

1. Australian Institute of Family Studies: Effects of child abuse and neglect for adult survivors (2014). Retrieved from http://www.aifs.gov.au/cfca/pubs/factsheets/a146123/index.html 

Everyone in a setting benefits from a culturally diverse community of people, in which respect and cultural humility is practiced. This diversity allows for learning new ideas and new practices and enables individuals to better operate in a diverse world. People who live in isolation, or who are surrounded only by homogeneous people will miss the opportunities that learning from other cultures can bring to children, families, and communities.


When people grow up in homogeneous communities, they may only have a single image of other people. Author, teacher, and international speaker Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie describes this as labeling people with a single story. This involves knowing very little about a person’s culture but thinking that one understands the other person and their experiences completely. No one has a “single story” and can be so easily understood. It is important to practice enough cultural humility to seek to learn more than a single thing or only a few things about another group of people.

You will better understand this single story concept by watching Ms. Adichie’s Ted Talk at the link below:

Single Story Ted Talk

This talk incorporates examples from America, Nigeria, and Mexico to describe the problem in using a single story to work with other people.


The following resources are categorized by special population and include both longstanding national non-profit organizations and federal government offices that offer information which may be of interest to the CBCAP community.

Latino and Hispanic Resources
(**Provide direct services in communities.)

http://www.aspira.org/ – **ASPIRA works at the grass-roots level to provide programs that encourage Hispanic students to stay in school, prepare them to succeed in the educational arena, develop their leadership skills, and to serve their community. It is organized in eight states and Puerto Rico and has extensive national presence through its partnerships with hundreds of regional, state and local education Community Based Organizations.

http://www.catholiccharitiesusa.org/ –**The mission of Catholic Charities agencies is to provide service to people in need, to advocate for justice in social structures, and to call the entire church and other people of good will to do the same. If you search online “Catholic Charities Latino Service” a range of state and regional affiliate organizations will be listed that have large Latino and Hispanic service populations.

https://lulac.org/– The Mission of the League of United Latin American Citizens is to advance the economic condition, educational attainment, political influence, housing, health and civil rights of the Hispanic population of the United States.

http://www.lutheranservices.org/ – **A national faith based organization that provides health and social services (i.e., housing and substance abuse prevention/treatment) in hard to serve communities. They provide services to refugee, immigrant, and migrant families, many of whom are Latinos.

https://www.naprhsw.com/ – National Association of Puerto Rican and Hispanic Social Workers (APRHSW) was created to organize Social Workers and other Human Service professionals to strengthen, develop and improve the resources and services that meet the needs of Puerto Rican/Hispanic families.

http://www.chci.org/ – The Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute (CHCI) is a nonpartisan leadership development organization rooted in the same three mission cornerstones laid by its founders: Educate, Empower, and Connect. CHCI promotes education attainment and college access, providing unmatched career development experience, and offering award-winning leadership programs that connect program participants to a network of U.S. leaders.

African Americans and Other Ethnicities

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SaSHLbS1V4w – A Video: Understanding Cultural Humility: People, Principles and Practices (2012) A 30-minute documentary by San Francisco State professor Vivian Chávez that mixes poetry with music, interviews, archival footage, and images of community, nature and dance to explain what Cultural Humility is and why we need it.

PBS – Journey to Peace – A program developed by Jamila White, Douglas Spiro, and Cole McGee that includes a documentary film. The website includes clips of videos from conversations with Dr. John Hope Franklin and Archbishop Desmond Tutu and 21 students. The students are from the United States, South Africa and the Republic of Senegal. Clips of student conversations revolve around interracial relationships, international stereotypes, intergenerational issues and using art to build bridges. The documentary was shown on PBS in 2001 and is available for order, but the website offers a number of rich resources which are readily available.

American Indian and Alaska Native Resources

http://www.collegefund.org/ – Native American College Fund: The American Indian College Fund’s motto is educating the mind and spirit. We achieve this by providing Native students with scholarships and providing financial support for the nation’s 34 accredited tribal colleges and universities, which incorporate American Indian culture and language into their curriculum to honor our students’ heritage and Native identity.

http://www.bia.gov/ – U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs: Established in 1824, IA currently provides services (directly or through contracts, grants, or compacts) to approximately 1.9 million American Indians and Alaska Natives. There are 566 federally recognized American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives in the United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is responsible for the administration and management of 55 million surface acres and 57 million acres of subsurface minerals estates held in trust by the United States for American Indian, Indian tribes, and Alaska Natives. Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) provides education services to approximately 42,000 Indian students.

http://www.ihs.gov/ – U.S. Indian Health Services: The IHS is the principal federal health care provider and health advocate for Indian people and its goal is to raise their health status to the highest possible level. The IHS provides a comprehensive health service delivery system for approximately 1.9 million American Indians and Alaska Natives who belong to 566 federally recognized tribes.

http://www.acf.hhs.gov/initiatives-priorities/tribal – U.S. Administration for Children and Families’ Tribal and Native American Resources: ACF is committed to working with Tribal Governments in building a strong partnership regarding our programs and the services they provide. ACF provides the largest amount of funding to Native Americans located throughout the nation and the territories of Guam, American Samoa and the Northern Marianna Islands outside of the funds provided by the Indian Health Service. Out of a budget of almost $50 Billion, ACF awards on the average $647 Million to Native Americans from the following programs Head Start, Child Care, TANF, LIHEAP, Child Support and the Administration for Native Americans to name a few.

http://www.justice.gov/otj/ – Office of Tribal Justice, Department of Justice: The website addresses policies and initiatives for parties interested in Indian affairs ranging from federal criminal law, to methamphetamine use, civil rights, gaming, and related information sharing.

http://www.bie.edu/index.htm – Bureau of Indian Education

http://www.ncai.org/ – National Congress of American Indians: Founded in 1944, it is the oldest, largest, and most representative American Indian and Alaskan Native organization serving the broad interests of tribal governments and communities. Updates posted regularly share new initiatives, issues in the media, and opportunities for native youth.


http://www.refugees.org/ – The U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (USCRI) has been serving uprooted people, regardless of their nationality, race, ideology, or social group. They provide tools and opportunities for self-sufficiency to refugees and immigrants nationwide, fight refugee warehousing around the world, serve victims of human trafficking, and protect the rights of unaccompanied immigrant children.

https://www.acf.hhs.gov/orr – The Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) provides new populations with opportunities to maximize their potential in the United States, linking people in need to critical resources to assist them in becoming integrated members of American society.


https://www.dol.gov/agencies/odep – This is the federal government website for information on disability programs and services nationwide. You can find thousands of resources on topics, such as how to apply for Social Security disability benefits, find a job and pay for accessible housing, to name just a few. Let Disability.gov guide you to the information you want.

CDAP Index – The Center for Disability and Aging Policy advises and supports the ACL Administrator and Principal Deputy Administrator in developing effective Federal policies and programs to address the needs of individuals with disabilities and the aging of the nation’s population. The Center supports, plans, coordinates and oversees the implementation of policies, programs and special initiatives designed to overcome barriers that prevent older Americans and persons with disabilities from fully participating and contributing in an inclusive community life.

http://www.ada.gov/ – The ADA is one of America’s most comprehensive pieces of civil rights legislation that prohibits discrimination and guarantees that people with disabilities have the same opportunities as everyone else to participate in the mainstream of American life — to enjoy employment opportunities, to purchase goods and services, and to participate in State and local government programs and services.


http://www.fatherhood.gov/about-us – The National Responsible Fatherhood Clearinghouse is an Office of Family Assistance (OFA) funded national resource for fathers, practitioners, programs/Federal grantees, states, and the public at-large who are serving or interested in supporting strong fathers and families.

Military Families

Military OneSource – Offers help with parenting and child care, education, relocation, financial and legal concerns, and everyday issues.

National Military Family Association – Provides education and information regarding rights, benefits, and services for military families.

Courage To Care  –Provides fact sheets on timely health topics relevant to military life developed by military health experts at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.

Military Child Education Coalition – Helps military children cope with being transferred from school to school around the world.

 NACCRRA – Provides child care resources and referral agencies that help parents find quality child care.

For more information on how to access FRIENDS technical assistance on this issue, Cultural Responsiveness, CBCAP State Leads may contact your FRIENDS T/TA coordinator.

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